I learned this (which about my limit in PT knowledge) as (surprise, surprise!) the "Motorway effect" (but Googling for that doesn't find anything useful), with regard to provisioning computer systems to an expected level of service. It's a variant of Murphy's Law. In short, building a motorway/bypass to alleviate congestion in a town, after correctly calculating the amount of through traffic vs local traffic, results in the town congestion remaining the same, and the motorway/bypass being also equally clogged. This still applies if you take the motorway effect into account. I believe that North Korea and Myanmar are exceptions to this law.
All the examples you give have subways, so are almost totally, but not completely, unlike Auckland. As a helpful critter, I've highlighted my mention of subways in my previous reply.
Simplistically, what you are saying is that congestion sucks. So double the motorway lanes so we can double the traffic, so now as congestion doesnt suck, twice the cars now drive, and we are back to congestion sucks?
Lowest common denominator syndrome
Give the animal life will seek the path of least resistance, maybe we need to control the animals? In AKL as just an example, cars are banned near the CBD. Buses are the only option from the CBD to the near suburbs. Cars are allowed in the near to outer suburbs. Basically treating people like sheep as we are sheep. That way you can force the PT rather than create a PT and hope it gets used? There is lots to life, so surely PT can be managed/forced. People will always find a way, so tale away that way. To get from outer suburbs to CBD there is only ONE way.
You talking about induced demand?
Thats how I see it. Make it one choice. Then the free thinking humans wont ruin it. When we complain, "this is the only option, if you don't like it, stay home" "or get real" There wont be a $1 bus ride to cater to everyone.