Using a Linux and Windows host with no network adapters as an example, binding applications and reverse proxy to localhost, this I would think could provide a reference response test, however, I'm curious as to what is the throughput ceiling is on localhost? RAM speed?
Really depends on a lot of factors, there's no one answer. It may be the read speed of the source, e.g. a mechanical disk, may be the efficiency of the application, processor, RAM overhead, etc. It's unlikely to be memory speed, though.
On windows using a virtual adaptor it is as far as I am aware 10Gbe, if a physical adaptor is used, it would likely be close to the max speed of the adaptor. Not sure what the virtual speed for Linux is.
Software Engineer (the practice of real science, engineering and management)