I just had Windows install some updates and my start menu stopped working. Edge would also open then force close. Found this: https://www.techmesto.com/fix-start-menu-broken-windows-10-technical-preview/ which was for the tech preview, but worked for me now. Open powershell as admin (right click on the non-functional start menu and select powershell admin). Then run this:
Get-AppXPackage -AllUsers | Foreach {Add-AppxPackage -DisableDevelopmentMode -Register "$($_.InstallLocation)\AppXManifest.xml"}

Took a minute but edge and start menu are now working.